Hot Potato

NameHot Potato
OriginSui Project / Todd Nowacki
Depends onNone
Known to work onMove


A Hot Potato is a struct without key, store and drop abilities forcing the struct to be used within the transaction it was created in. This is desired in applications like flash loans where the loans must be initiated and repaid during the same transaction.


// Copyright (c) 2022, Mysten Labs, Inc.
// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

/// A flash loan that works for any Coin type
module defi::flash_lender {
    use sui::balance::{Self, Balance};
    use sui::coin::{Self, Coin};
    use sui::object::{Self, ID, UID};
    use sui::transfer;
    use sui::tx_context::{Self, TxContext};

    /// A shared object offering flash loans to any buyer willing to pay `fee`.
    struct FlashLender<phantom T> has key {
        id: UID,
        /// Coins available to be lent to prospective borrowers
        to_lend: Balance<T>,
        /// Number of `Coin<T>`'s that will be charged for the loan.
        /// In practice, this would probably be a percentage, but
        /// we use a flat fee here for simplicity.
        fee: u64,

    /// A "hot potato" struct recording the number of `Coin<T>`'s that
    /// were borrowed. Because this struct does not have the `key` or
    /// `store` ability, it cannot be transferred or otherwise placed in
    /// persistent storage. Because it does not have the `drop` ability,
    /// it cannot be discarded. Thus, the only way to get rid of this
    /// struct is to call `repay` sometime during the transaction that created it,
    /// which is exactly what we want from a flash loan.
    struct Receipt<phantom T> {
        /// ID of the flash lender object the debt holder borrowed from
        flash_lender_id: ID,
        /// Total amount of funds the borrower must repay: amount borrowed + the fee
        repay_amount: u64

    /// An object conveying the privilege to withdraw funds from and deposit funds to the
    /// `FlashLender` instance with ID `flash_lender_id`. Initially granted to the creator
    /// of the `FlashLender`, and only one `AdminCap` per lender exists.
    struct AdminCap has key, store {
        id: UID,
        flash_lender_id: ID,

    /// Attempted to borrow more than the `FlashLender` has.
    /// Try borrowing a smaller amount.
    const ELoanTooLarge: u64 = 0;

    /// Tried to repay an amount other than `repay_amount` (i.e., the amount borrowed + the fee).
    /// Try repaying the proper amount.
    const EInvalidRepaymentAmount: u64 = 1;

    /// Attempted to repay a `FlashLender` that was not the source of this particular debt.
    /// Try repaying the correct lender.
    const ERepayToWrongLender: u64 = 2;

    /// Attempted to perform an admin-only operation without valid permissions
    /// Try using the correct `AdminCap`
    const EAdminOnly: u64 = 3;

    /// Attempted to withdraw more than the `FlashLender` has.
    /// Try withdrawing a smaller amount.
    const EWithdrawTooLarge: u64 = 4;

    // === Creating a flash lender ===

    /// Create a shared `FlashLender` object that makes `to_lend` available for borrowing.
    /// Any borrower will need to repay the borrowed amount and `fee` by the end of the
    /// current transaction.
    public fun new<T>(to_lend: Balance<T>, fee: u64, ctx: &mut TxContext): AdminCap {
        let id = object::new(ctx);
        let flash_lender_id = object::uid_to_inner(&id);
        let flash_lender = FlashLender { id, to_lend, fee };
        // make the `FlashLender` a shared object so anyone can request loans

        // give the creator admin permissions
        AdminCap { id: object::new(ctx), flash_lender_id }

    /// Same as `new`, but transfer `WithdrawCap` to the transaction sender
    public entry fun create<T>(to_lend: Coin<T>, fee: u64, ctx: &mut TxContext) {
        let balance = coin::into_balance(to_lend);
        let withdraw_cap = new(balance, fee, ctx);

        transfer::transfer(withdraw_cap, tx_context::sender(ctx))

    // === Core functionality: requesting a loan and repaying it ===

    /// Request a loan of `amount` from `lender`. The returned `Receipt<T>` "hot potato" ensures
    /// that the borrower will call `repay(lender, ...)` later on in this tx.
    /// Aborts if `amount` is greater that the amount that `lender` has available for lending.
    public fun loan<T>(
        self: &mut FlashLender<T>, amount: u64, ctx: &mut TxContext
    ): (Coin<T>, Receipt<T>) {
        let to_lend = &mut self.to_lend;
        assert!(balance::value(to_lend) >= amount, ELoanTooLarge);
        let loan = coin::take(to_lend, amount, ctx);
        let repay_amount = amount + self.fee;
        let receipt = Receipt { flash_lender_id: object::id(self), repay_amount };

        (loan, receipt)

    /// Repay the loan recorded by `receipt` to `lender` with `payment`.
    /// Aborts if the repayment amount is incorrect or `lender` is not the `FlashLender`
    /// that issued the original loan.
    public fun repay<T>(self: &mut FlashLender<T>, payment: Coin<T>, receipt: Receipt<T>) {
        let Receipt { flash_lender_id, repay_amount } = receipt;
        assert!(object::id(self) == flash_lender_id, ERepayToWrongLender);
        assert!(coin::value(&payment) == repay_amount, EInvalidRepaymentAmount);

        coin::put(&mut self.to_lend, payment)

    // === Admin-only functionality ===

    /// Allow admin for `self` to withdraw funds.
    public fun withdraw<T>(
        self: &mut FlashLender<T>,
        admin_cap: &AdminCap,
        amount: u64,
        ctx: &mut TxContext
    ): Coin<T> {
        // only the holder of the `AdminCap` for `self` can withdraw funds
        check_admin(self, admin_cap);

        let to_lend = &mut self.to_lend;
        assert!(balance::value(to_lend) >= amount, EWithdrawTooLarge);
        coin::take(to_lend, amount, ctx)

    /// Allow admin to add more funds to `self`
    public entry fun deposit<T>(
        self: &mut FlashLender<T>, admin_cap: &AdminCap, coin: Coin<T>
    ) {
        // only the holder of the `AdminCap` for `self` can deposit funds
        check_admin(self, admin_cap);
        coin::put(&mut self.to_lend, coin);

    /// Allow admin to update the fee for `self`
    public entry fun update_fee<T>(
        self: &mut FlashLender<T>, admin_cap: &AdminCap, new_fee: u64
    ) {
        // only the holder of the `AdminCap` for `self` can update the fee
        check_admin(self, admin_cap);

        self.fee = new_fee

    fun check_admin<T>(self: &FlashLender<T>, admin_cap: &AdminCap) {
        assert!(object::borrow_id(self) == &admin_cap.flash_lender_id, EAdminOnly);

    // === Reads ===

    /// Return the current fee for `self`
    public fun fee<T>(self: &FlashLender<T>): u64 {

    /// Return the maximum amount available for borrowing
    public fun max_loan<T>(self: &FlashLender<T>): u64 {

    /// Return the amount that the holder of `self` must repay
    public fun repay_amount<T>(self: &Receipt<T>): u64 {

    /// Return the amount that the holder of `self` must repay
    public fun flash_lender_id<T>(self: &Receipt<T>): ID {

Example for Sui Move is taken from the Sui repository.